• Problems Of Quality

    A scientific journal presenting a detailed look on the achievements of theory and practice in the scientific discipline of management and quality in relation to the interdisciplinary field of knowledge, which is qualitology, whose most important applications can be found in social, natural, technical and economic areas.



Determinants of individual consumer behaviours and features of the Polish dietary supplements market DOI:10.15199/46.2019.11.1
Katarzyna HYS

Identification of the features of the Polish dietary supplements market based on factors determining individual consumer behaviours in this market. Methodology: Analysis of related literature – licensed science databases, reports and analyses published by commercial and state institutions. Results: The factors affecting the rapid Polish dietary supplements market growth include, among others, economic, social and cultural, demographic and psychological factors. In relation to these factors, determinants of individual consumer behaviours were identified and assigned with features of the Polish dietary supplements market. Conclusions: The common, intensive and multi-dimensional activity (especially marketing activity) of dietary supplements manufacturers and vendors in Poland resulted in the dynamic growth of this discipline in the market. The analysis of the features of the Polish dietary supplements market provides information concerning the market’s features in relation to the determinants affecting individual consumer behaviour in the market.
dietary supplements, consumer behaviours, features of the Polish dietary supplements market more»

Assessment of the possibilities to increase the safety of air transport after introducing alerts for terrorist threats DOI:10.15199/46.2019.11.3

The threat of a terrorist attack on the airport infrastructure and aircraft in the air, is now an important issue for professionals dealing with air safety. Actions undertaken in this respect focus mainly on the development of the procedures in case of terrorist threats. The author of following article investigates the rules of conduct at the airports in case of introduction of terrorist threat alarm by the state. The main aim of this article is to highlight some of the rules of conduct and to answer the important question: to what extent the introduction of alerts for terrorist threat has an impact on increasing the safety of air transport?
aviation safety, airport, levels of terrorist threat alarm more»



Regional quality contests based on business excellence models - Pomeranian case study DOI:10.15199/46.2019.10.4

Competitions based on models of organizational excellence have significant potential. Organizations participating in these initiatives have the chance not only to get marketing benefits, but also gain comprehensive knowledge about their management systems. Moreover, thanks to the structure of models of excellence an organization can plan in detail the improvement activities in its main processes. The aim of the authors is to analyze and assess the conditions accompanying competitions for quality awards based on organizational excellence models implemented at the regional level. On the basis of in-depth interview and source materials of Pomerania case study a diagnosis of the current status of this project was presented and the most important problems have been identified. The results can be helpful to improve these types of projects, develop the framework of a new comprehensive system of such competitions in Poland and increase their rank in promoting a pro-quality approach. JEL Classification: L15, M42, R11, Y80
Keywords: excellence, business excellence model, quality competition more»

Consumerism and the sharing economy DOI:10.15199/46.2019.10.2
Małgorzata Z. WIŚNIEWSKA

The aim of the article is to present the general essence of the phenomenon of just culture in the light of the common problem that is making mistakes, reaction to them, including learning from mistakes. The work uses a method of critical analysis of the literature, a method of synthesis and of logical reasoning. In the first part of the article, the author defines the error and presents selected types of error classification. In the second part she referred to the phenomenon of just culture, giving its selected definitions and indicating the relationship between the phenomenon of error and error reporting. The paper presents the just culture model as well as the essence of "Swiss cheese model" by J. Reason.
Keywords: error, just culture, quality, safety more»



Quality of packaging for transport of dangerous goods by air DOI:10.15199/46.2019.9.2

This article presents selected topics related to the issues of air transport of packaging intended for dangerous goods and packaging quality requirements. The division of these packages as well as the methods of their construction and selection of materials are presented. The classical methods and reverse engineering were presented in the field of packaging construction methods. Typical hazards for transported materials, packaging, their causes and effects are also given.
Keywords: packaging quality, dangerous materials, air transport more»

Consumerism and the sharing economy DOI:10.15199/46.2019.9.1

In the conditions of the consumer society, there is a growing desire for consumption, which does not always take the form of rational behaviour. It carries with it a number of phenomena that lead to waste of material and human resources. The pursuit of unrestricted consumption and the constant pursuit of novelties in order to distinguish oneself from others are constantly on the increase. At the same time, there is talk of the development of a disease called affluenza. Sharing economy is becoming a kind of alternative to consumerism in the modern world. It is a model of consumption that puts the focus on access to a given good without the need to own it. The rapid development of the economy of sharing is, on the one hand, an opportunity to optimize the behaviour of market participants, but on the other hand, it will be accompanied by resistance from those interested in increasing the supply of goods and services. A separate problem is a number of unregulated legal issues in this sphere. In the conditions of sustainable development, intelligent consumption and sustainable consumption may be a tool to support sustainable development and to support sharing economy. The positive trend towards sharing economy, which is noticeable in the young digital generation, is worth stressing.
Keywords: sharing economy, consumption, consumerism, sustainable development, affluenza more»



Effectiveness of using Computer Aided Quality in the field of statistical process control in meeting quality requirements in the automotive industry DOI:10.15199/46.2019.8.2
Łukasz WIECHA, Grzegorz ĆWIKŁA, Marek ROSZAK

The purpose of this article is to present the requirements of IATF 16949:2016 standard and VDA 6.1 standard in the field of statistical process control (SPC) for suppliers of the automotive industry, as well as ways to meet them using modern tools of an integrated computer aided quality systems (CAQ) based on the LEANQS program. The effectiveness of using the presented tool was demonstrated, allowing to meet industry requirements with a small amount of resources necessary for supervision and proper implementation of the key process of the quality management system such as SPC. The results of the case analysis presented in the paper are the results of the research carried out in a company being supplier in the automotive industry, in which one of the LEAN-QS modules was implemented to meet the requirements of a certified quality management system compliant with IATF 16949:2016
Keywords: automotive industry, IATF 16949:2016 standard, VDA, SPC, CAQ, control chart, process stability and capability more»

Value for the client as an element of strengthening loyalty in the telecommunications services sector DOI:10.15199/46.2019.8.1
(Stanisław TKACZYK Jolanta KOŁUDA)

The research problem raised in the article is the answer to the question: what factors can strengthen customer’s loyalty in the telecommunications services sector and which of them have the greatest influence on customer’s decisions about loyalty. The aim of the article, in its epistemological part, is to present the general essence of loyalty and its possible components, and in the empirical part to present research results based on the subject literature. The study consists of five parts: two theoretical, two research parts and summary with conclusions. The theoretical part presents the phenomenon and concepts of loyalty. Its components described in the literature on the subject were also featured. The empirical part presents factors that may determine customer loyalty in the telecommunications service sector and the theoretical model that describes the customer’s decision making process about loyalty to the selected object. The results of research indicate that customer’s loyalty in the telecommunications services sector can shape both qualitative factors related to the service, as well as quality factors such as security or social aspects
Keywords: customer, value, satisfaction, loyalty, service, telecommunications more»



Comprehensive use of quality management methods and tools in the FMEA process DOI:10.15199/46.2019.7.3

The paper presents the application of the FMEA process on a specific example of underwear production in the Hanna Style company. The methodology based on the assumption that during the FMEA process the causes of errors should not be associated with their effects allows a comprehensive approach to the issues of process quality improvement. Accepting the assumption that any cause can trigger an error that will result in many effects allows a more detailed and deeper analysis of problems in the process, which is the advantage of a comprehensive approach. This is possible only when the analysis is carried out with specific quality management tools, e.g. Ishikawa Diagram and 5 WHY. The results of the improvement activities presented in the article are only a fragment of ongoing improvement activities at Hanna Style.
Keywords: methods and tools of quality management, FMEA process, process quality improvement, Ishikawa diagram, 5 WHY more»

The EMAS system as a tool supporting the implementation of energy policy DOI:10.15199/46.2019.7.1

The Eco- Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) is a formalized environmental management system whose main aim is to support the organization in obtaining continuous improvement of environmental performance. The aim of the article is to present the significance of the EMAS system in the context of supporting the implementation of energy policy. In order to accomplish this aim, in the introduction the energy policy assumptions were presented, the achievement of which may support the implementation of the EMAS system, emphasizing the system requirements that are very important in this context. Then the author presented the aspects and environmental objectives which are identified by most Polish companies registered in the EMAS system, chosen through analysis of secondary sources in the form of environmental statements. Their assessment allowed to distinguish aspects and objectives that are convergent with the objectives of energy policy, which allows to draw conclusions that the EMAS system may be one of the measures serving the implementation of selected energy policy assumptions.
Keywords: Eco-Management and Audit Scheme ‘EMAS’, environmental management system, energy policy more»



Conformity assessment of packaging used in the aviation transport of biological infectious agents in the aspect of the existing legal differences in the North Atlantic Alliance states DOI:10.15199/46.2019.6.3

According to the current military regulations, air transport of biological infectious agents is organized in accordance with the regulations on the transport of hazardous materials, issued by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). However, it is necessary to analyse the existing decisions made by Minister of National Defence by asking the question: Whether due to the nature of the mission that can be performed by the Polish Armed Forces, very strict transport regulations for carrying biological infectious agents by military airplanes should not allow significant deviations from civil aviation procedures. The purpose of the following article is to present the current regulations on packaging required for air transport of biological infectious agents and to indicate possible exemptions for military aviation. On the basis of the literature review and analysis of applicable national and international aviation regulations, an attempt was made to indicate the quality of packaging, which should be used for the transport of infectious materials by military aircraft. As a result, this article may therefore be the basis for undertaking work on the implementation of a doctrinal document in the Polish Armed Forces, regulating not only the issues raised, but the whole transport of hazardous materials by military aircraft.
Keywords: air transport, biological infectious materials, ICAO, packaging more»

Maturity of the organization in the light of theory DOI:10.15199/46.2019.6.1
(dr Adam SKRZYPEK)

Maturity is a fundamental concept in development theory and in areas that are a source of inspiration. The complexity of the maturity category highlights the multilevel nature of this concept. Maturity is associated with efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and organisational improvement. Broad interest in the issue of maturity has been confirmed by bibliometric analysis based on data from the Web of Science. The article reviews the definitions of maturity published in Polish and world literature.
Keywords: maturity, maturity of the organization, assessment of maturity more»



The importance of cash import/export restrictions to/outside the Schengen zone as an element of shaping the security and quality of business transactions DOI:10.15199/46.2019.5.3
(Janusz PŁACZEK, Marek KUSTRA)

A person crossing the state border outside the Schengen area, and having cash equivalent to 10 000 EURO, is obliged to notify the customs authorities or the Border Guard in an appropriate declaration. It is related to shaping the security of business transactions. If a person fails to do this, he or she is liable to a fine for this tax offense. This law has been in force in all EU countries since mid-2007. Despite the fact that this law has been in force for a long time, only in 2017 our customs and tax services intercepted unpaid cash worth about EURO 2 million. It is worth reminding that our citizens remember about the obligation to make such an application on the territory of all EU countries when they travel outside the Schengen area. At the same time, sanctions should be harmonized on the EU forum because there is a lot of freedom in each country. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the obligation to notify customs and tax authorities in case of importing/exporting cash above 10 000 EURO to/from the Schengen zone and the harmonization of penalties in this regard within the Community.
Keywords: cash, Schengen zone, security and quality of business transactions more»



The brand perception as a symbol of product quality among the consumers in Poland DOI:10.15199/46.2019.4.3
(Wiesław ŁUKASIŃSKI, Paulina BETLEJ)

The aim of the publication is to show the brand’s importance and perception of it by Polish consumers. Its implementation was possible thanks to reviewing the literature and conducting a questionnaire survey allowing to get to know consumers’ opinions on this subject. The research shows that the brand as well as the process of its management influence the perception of products by consumers. Apart from this, it should be advisable to give it a specific identity, to build it positive images and to enhance its strength, because it has a significant impact on benefits of the organization and the consumer. The survey results show that: 90% of respondents making purchases pay attention to the product brand, which means that the phenomenon of brand recognition is important, consumers decide on branded products when shopping, because they have more confidence in them, which is associated with a higher conviction product quality, from the consumers’ point of view, the most important are those brand features and factors affecting its value which directly affect consumers, they can experience their effects, advertising (attracting the consumer's attention to the brand) and the logo (association with the brand, product) were considered as the key instrument in the process of shaping the brand's value. The obtained test results can be seen as the ground for undertaking activities that popularize the brand in society, because this increases the chance for organizational development as well as consumer benefits.
Keywords: brand, Polish consumer, perception of the brand’s importance more»

Quality of hair shampoos differing in the type of basic surfactant DOI:10.15199/46.2019.4.4

Shampoos are one of the most important segments of the cosmetics market. Their basic task is to clean the hair and scalp from dust, sebum, microorganisms. Therefore the consumer first of all expects the shampoo to have good washing properties. In consumer choices, foam-forming properties and viscosity are not unmistakable. All this meant that the aim of this work was to determine the surface activity, foaming properties and viscosity of several shampoos available in the Polish market. The analysis included shampoos with “classic composition" and shampoos containing ingredients of natural origin. Critical micelle concentration was determined by measurements of the surface tension by tensiometer using the du Noüy method. In turn, the wetting properties evaluated on the basis of the contact angle. Both the size of the contact angle and the CMC value indicate that shampoos containing ingredients of natural origin can compete in quality with classic shampoos.
Keywords: surfactants, quality of hair, shampoo more»



The significance of age and gender in the process of the quality assessment of services provided on board aircraft DOI:10.15199/46.2019.3.4

Age and gender are listed among many factors determining the behavior and needs of consumers. Understanding consumer preferences, with the above criteria in mind, seems to be an important task for enterprises which take into account the demographic diversity of their customers. Of particular importance are age criteria, as the share of older air travellers is growing rapidly. World Bank data show that airlines will be serving an increasing number of older people over the next five years. Between 2016 and 2021, there will be 2% fewer people between the ages of 20 and 24 in the world. The position of women in society has also significantly changed, as they are better educated and with their better education, their professional aspirations increase, which are very often influenced by the so-called ideology of equality. The aim of the research is to show to what extent gender and age determine the quality assessment of services provided on board aircraft. The research involved 500 passengers of LOT Polish Airlines, including 236 women and 264 men. While the age structure refers to the division of the surveyed passengers into two groups: under the age of 45 and over the age of 46. The research tool was a questionnaire prepared in two language versions: Polish and English. The Mann-Whitney test was used for data analysis. It was found that in the surveyed group of respondents it was the men (gender criterion) and people under the age of 45 (age criterion) who assessed the quality of services performed on board aircraft much worse. The obtained data undoubtedly broaden knowledge in terms of both preferences and the quality assessment of services provided on board aircraft.
Keywords:sex, age, quality of services, aircraft, air transport, tourist services more»

A.T. Kearney’s Purchasing Chessboard as a methodical base for pro-quality management of purchasing DOI:10.15199/46.2019.3.1

The purpose of this article is to present the methods of building successful relationships with suppliers in the area of purchasing management. Suppliers with high bargaining power are the object of the research. The relationships with suppliers in purchasing area are the subject. The Purchasing Chessboard as a tool supporting the supplier relationship diversification in favour of high quality and good price has been described. Research hypothesis was formulated as follows: effective purchasing management is possible when using adequate purchasing methods according to needs, as presented by A.T. Kearney Purchasing Chessboard. In the empirical part, the consequences of applying reverse auction, one of the confrontational purchasing methods, for existing relations with suppliers were described.
Keywords: supplier relationships, purchasing strategies, purchasing chessboard, reverse auction



People Behaviours in Crisis Situations DOI:10.15199/46.2019.2.3
Aleksandra KACZMAREK

Societies have long been facing emergencies caused either by accident or by individual failures. We live in a dynamically developing world in which it is increasingly important to have an ability of acting in situations that may be regarded as emergencies. These are difficult conditions when it is not easy to predict the consequences of our behaviour. Therefore, an extremely important thing in such circumstances is to act reasonably. That is why, the purpose of this article is to present the results of the research concerning human aptitude to act in emergencies, basing on the analysis of literature in that matter. The consequences of no aptitude to perform professional duties might have an impact on the quality and effectiveness of the realised activities.
Keywords: crisis, crisis situation, quality of decisions, stress, career predispositions

CSI method in evaluating satisfaction of an individual customer of property insurance services DOI:10.15199/46.2019.2.2
Jarosław Wenancjusz PRZYBYTNIOWSKI

Thus, the main problem of the paper is the evaluation of the satisfaction with property insurance agreement of an individual customer. In order to realize the adopted research problem, the author used a method to research quality service, i.e. CSI Customer Satisfaction Index. A questionnaire was used as the main measurement tool. This method allows us to establish the level of customer satisfaction and to obtain many important hints as to the trends in changes in the activity of property insurance institutions. The results obtained made it possible to conduct an in-depth analysis of service quality. This paper is a continuation of earlier conducted and published studies.
Keywords: CSI, quality of services, property insurance, satisfaction more»



The reasons of lack of interest in an university as an employer among young potential employees in the context of perceived quality of professional life DOI:10.15199/46.2019.1.3
Agnieszka Izabela BARUK

The article has the theoretical-empirical character. The considerations related to the reasons of young potential employees’ aversion toward an university as an employer in the context of perceived quality of professional life were presented. The results of cognitive-critical analysis of literature show that the aspects connected with playing the role of employer by an university haven’t been surveyed. The personnel activities which should be taken to attract the best candidates haven’t been analysed either. That’s why one can state that the cognitive and the research gaps exist. To reduce these gaps the primary researches were conducted using questionnaire survey method. Gathered primary data were analysed applying Kruskal- -Wallis test etc. The results of this analysis allowed to verify the research hypothesis that the gender didn’t differentiate the reasons of lack of interest in an university as an employer. This hypothesis was rejected, because there was one reason which was differentiated in the statistically significant way due to mentioned feature.
Keywords: university, employer, potential employee, quality of professional life more»

Spiritual capital in organization management DOI:10.15199/46.2019.1.1

The aim of the article is to present the concept and essence of spiritual capital, to justify the role of spirituality in economic and social development, and to emphasize the need to distinguish spiritual capital from other capitals of the organization. The research was based on the subject literature. The article highlights the need for the moral values developed over the centuries to be included into business. Traditional capitals of the organization and their connections with spiritual capital were discussed. The results of the research indicate different approaches to the concept of spiritual capital. However, you can find in them the moral core of an organization. They also allow to state that a model of general universal moral values in business emerges.
Keywords: quality of life, management, organization, spirituality, spiritual capital, moral values

Scientific and Programme Council:
Chairman: Prof. Stanisław Tkaczyk – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Prof. Tadeusz Borys – University of Zielona Góra, Poland
Prof. Tom Bramorski - University of Georgia Atlanta, USA
Prof. Marek Bugdol – Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland
Prof. Krystyna Cholewicka-Goździk – Kozminski University in Warsaw, Poland
Prof. Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park - Business Administration, School of Management and Economics, Linköpings University, Sweden
Ing. Martina Džubáková, PhD. – University of Economics in Bratislava, Slovakia
Prof. Gilmar Ferreira Batalha - University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Prof. Sandra Muizniece-Brasava - Latvia University of Agriculture, Latvia
Prof. Ing. Jaroslav Nenadál, CSc. – Vysoká škola báňská – Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Prof. Ing. Jiří Plura, CSc. – Vysoká škola báňská V – Technical University of Ostrava – Czech Republic
Dr Mirosław Recha – The Polish Chamber of Commerce, Poland
PhD Jurgita Sekliuckiene, Professor - Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania
Prof. Elżbieta Skrzypek – Maria Curie Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland
Prof. Maciej Urbaniak – University of Lodz, Poland

List of Reviewers:
dr hab. inż. Wiktor Adamus, prof. dr hab. Marek Bugdol, prof. dr hab. Krystyna Cholewicka-Goździk, dr inż. Anna Dobrowolska, prof. dr hab. inż. Jan Figurski, mgr inż. Jacek Frydrych, dr hab. inż. Bożena Gajdzik, dr hab. inż. Piotr Grudowski, dr hab. inż. Józef Gruszka, płk dr hab. inż. Tomasz Jałowiec, dr inż. Małgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, dr inż. Monika Kaczmarczyk, dr Agnieszka Kister, dr inż. Wiesław Klimczak, prof. dr hab. Krystyna Lisiecka, dr n. ekon. Mira Lisiecka-Biełanowicz, dr inż. Roma Marczewska-Kuźma, dr inż. Anna Mazur, dr hab. inż. Agnieszka Misztal, płk dr hab. Szymon Mitkow, prof. dr hab. inż. Leszek Pacholski, dr hab. inż. Marek Roszak, dr Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska, dr Adam Skrzypek, dr hab. inż. Małgorzata Sławińska, dr inż. Agnieszka Stachowiak, dr Dawid Szostek, dr hab. inż. Andrzej Świderski, prof. dr hab. inż. Stanisław Tkaczyk, prof. dr hab. inż. Edwin Tytyk, prof. dr hab. Maciej Urbaniak, prof. dr hab. Małgorzata Z. Wiśniewska, prof. dr hab. inż. Jarosław Wołejszo, płk rez.; dr hab. Zofia Zymonik, dr Janusz Zymonik, dr hab. inż. Hanna Żakowska

Subscription rates for 2019

Dear Customer!

Order an annual subscription in the PLUS version and get access to archived publications.

Do not hesitate – access thousands of publications at the highest substantive level.

The subscription rates of the journal with effect from 1st January 2019 are:
- annual subscription PLUS (paper version and access to e-publication archive): 492,00 PLN
- annual subscription PLUS 10% off (Continuous Subscription): 442,80 PLN *)
- annual subscription – paper version only: 402,00 PLN
- half-year subscription – paper version only: 201,00 PLN
- quarterly subscription – paper version only: 100,50 PLN

*) Discount is subject to a written agreement called a Continuous Subscription.

Outside Poland
- annual subscription PLUS (paper version and access to e-publication archive): 168,80 EUR or 188,29 USD
- annual subscription – paper version only: 144,80 EUR or 160,29 USD

If you have any questions, please e-mail the Editorial Board directly at: problemyjakosci@sigma-not.pl

All scientific manuscripts are subject to double blind peer review.

The editorial board accepts original, never before published, scientific papers from the thematic scope of the journal.
The papers in Polish or English language may be submitted to the journal. Editor-in-Chief makes a publication decision based on the reviews and sends the author(s) a decision e-mail accompanied by the reviewers’ reports or comments.
Manuscripts should be submitted via e-mail to: problemyjakosci@sigma-not.pl
The journal is provided in black and white.

Guidelines for Authors
Ethics and publication malpractice statement
Reviewing procedure
Review form

All scientific manuscripts are subject to double blind peer review.

Reviewing procedure
Review form
Ethics and publication malpractice statement
Guidelines for Authors

List of Reviewers:

dr hab. inż. Wiktor Adamus, prof. dr hab. Marek Bugdol, prof. dr hab. Krystyna Cholewicka-Goździk, dr inż. Anna Dobrowolska, prof. dr hab. inż. Jan Figurski, mgr inż. Jacek Frydrych, dr hab. inż. Bożena Gajdzik, dr hab. inż. Piotr Grudowski, dr hab. inż. Józef Gruszka, płk dr hab. inż. Tomasz Jałowiec, dr inż. Małgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, dr inż. Monika Kaczmarczyk, dr Agnieszka Kister, dr inż. Wiesław Klimczak, prof. dr hab. Krystyna Lisiecka, dr n. ekon. Mira Lisiecka-Biełanowicz, dr inż. Roma Marczewska-Kuźma, dr inż. Anna Mazur, dr hab. inż. Agnieszka Misztal, płk dr hab. Szymon Mitkow, prof. dr hab. inż. Leszek Pacholski, dr hab. inż. Marek Roszak, dr Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska, dr Adam Skrzypek, dr hab. inż. Małgorzata Sławińska, dr Dawid Szostek, dr hab. inż. Andrzej Świderski, prof. dr hab. inż. Stanisław Tkaczyk, prof. dr hab. inż. Edwin Tytyk, prof. dr hab. Maciej Urbaniak, prof. dr hab. Małgorzata Z. Wiśniewska, prof. dr hab. inż. Jarosław Wołejszo, płk rez.; dr hab. Zofia Zymonik, dr Janusz Zymonik, dr inż. Hanna Żakowska